School operations

Reporting Student Achievement and Progress Foundation to 10

Making teacher judgements and assigning scores for student reporting

Teacher judgements

Teachers make on-balance, holistic, evidence-based and defensible judgements against the achievement standards and determine scores that accurately reflect where the student is located on a learning continuum for all curriculum areas taught during the reporting period. These judgements form the basis of information presented in student reports.

Teacher judgements are made through an ongoing process of:

  • gathering data over a period of time from a variety of formal and informal tasks and learning experiences
  • analysing and interpreting this data
  • moderating initial judgements with colleagues – against achievement standards and school defined and disseminated frames of reference, such as scoring guidelines and assessment criteria.


All students’ achievement can be recorded using a score. Using scores supports the monitoring of the student’s progress along the learning continuum. Scores are recorded using a value within the scoring range for the curriculum area being reported:

  • the scoring range for the Victorian Curriculum F-10 is A -11.0
  • the Towards Foundation Level A to D curriculum is used for students who are progressing towards achieving the Foundation level achievement standards
  • the Victorian Curriculum F-10 EAL scoring range is from:
    • A1.1 to A2.3 for students on the A pathway
    • BL.1 to B3.3 for students on the B pathway
    • CL.1 to C4.3 for students on the C pathway.

When more than one teacher teaches the same curriculum area (learning area and/or capability) to a student during the reporting period, each teacher will make a judgement about where the student is located on the learning continuum.

The school’s moderation process should be used to determine the level of achievement to be reported and the score to be recorded or each teacher could record a score for the student’s level of achievement in the school’s reporting software.

A single score will be created by the software. This final score should be confirmed by the relevant teachers.

A ‘did not participate’ or ‘DNP’ is used when students are not being assessed in a curriculum area/strand/mode for the reporting period. Teachers would use a ‘DNP’ entry when they do not have a suitable amount of evidence of a student’s level of achievement, due to special circumstances, to make a defensible and on-balance judgement against the standards. Refer to:

Scores are recorded in the school’s student reporting software package or directly into CASES21, refer to Reporting to the department chapter of these Guidelines.

Student progress and curriculum planning

Student progress will be influenced by each school’s individual teaching and learning plan, and by factors such as time allocation and frequency of tasks. The school’s teaching and learning plan will identify what is taught, assessed and reported.

Curriculum planning should align to and be supported by assessment planning. Considering opportunities for assessment and embedding assessments, such as formative assessments and pre/post-tests, is an important aspect of curriculum planning. Information from these assessments help teachers monitor student progress to inform their planning and provide learning evidence to support reporting.

For information and guidance about curriculum programs and assessment in schools, visit:

Teachers may consider co-developing indicative progress descriptions with students to assist with setting learning expectations of students and to assess and report student achievement.

An important aspect of curriculum planning is being able to articulate what student progress looks like, using the achievement standards in the curriculum continuum.

Visit VCAA curriculum area adviceExternal Link for:

  • indicative progress templates
  • annotated indicative progress examples
  • student work samples for specific curriculum areas.

For information about whole-school curriculum planning, visit VCAA curriculum planning resourceExternal Link .

Guidance chapter on teacher judgements about a student's level of achievement and assigning scores for student reporting

Reviewed 15 March 2022

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