School operations


6 Requirements for schools managing absence

Excusing and not excusing absences

Principals can consider the excuse given for an absence and use their discretion to decide if the parent has a reasonable excuse for not meeting their legal obligations ('excused absence') or does not have a reasonable excuse ('unexcused absence').

The process for making a decision about student absences involves a principal:

  • considering a request from a parent to approve an absence
  • exercising their discretion as to whether or not to excuse or not excuse the absence
  • notifying the parent if the absences have not been excused.

In exercising their discretion, the Principal should take the following considerations into account:

  • whether the absence has a reasonable excuse, or is entitled to an exemption, under the Education and Training Reform Act 2006 (Vic)External Link
  • whether the student should do some learning activities during the absence (refer to Student Absence Learning Plan in the Resources tab)
  • if this kind of absence is covered in the school's policy (for example, shopping, birthday, visiting relatives)
  • whether or not the length of absence will affect the student's learning
  • whether the parent has requested this kind of absence before, and if so how recently and how many times
  • whether or not the principal has approved this kind of absence before
  • cultural factors or details of the student and family's circumstances
  • the implications for not approving the absence
  • whether an exemption would be appropriate, whereby the school should assist the parent to apply for an exemption.

In general, it is expected that principals would excuse absences for:

  • medical and dental appointments, where out of hours appointments are not possible or not appropriate
  • bereavement or attendance at the funeral of a relative or friend of the student, including a student required to attend Sorry Business
  • school refusal, if a plan is in place with the parent to address causes
  • cultural observance, if the parent notifies the school in advance
  • family holidays, where the parent notifies the school in advance and the student completes any Student Absence Learning Plan agreed by the school, student and parent.

In general, principals would not be expected to excuse absences, where:

  • approval had not been sought in advance or in accordance with school policy
  • the student was absent due to participating in leisure or social activities without approval
  • the conditions of approval have not been met (for example, Student Absence Learning Plan for a family holiday not completed)
  • the parent has provided no explanation for the absences.

Other explanations require confirmation from the principal to ensure the parent has a reasonable excuse.


A principal can excuse these absences by establishing school policy for different absence types or by excusing absences on a case-by-case basis. School policy should be consistent with these guidelines.


The Education and Training Reform Act 2006 (Vic) allows principals to excuse a student’s absences whenever the parent provides an excuse that the principal considers reasonable.

Truancy (that is, where the student is absent from school due to their disobedience and not due to any fault of the parent) is a reasonable excuse for a parent. In deciding to accept this explanation a principal must consider:

  • the age of the student
  • the previous attendance of the student and
  • the parent's capacity to influence and control the student's behaviour.

If, after considering these factors, the principal is not satisfied with the parent's explanation that it was solely the student's decision to be truant, then the absence should be regarded as an unexcused absence and the principal should follow the processes set out below.

Truancy is often a warning sign of disengagement and is best addressed early in partnership with the family and school. For more information, refer to Attendance Improvement Strategies in chapter 7 of this Guidance.

The table below provides examples of common reasons for absences and general advice for principals.

Common reasons for absence Parent approval required School required to confirm reason is authentic Reasonable excuse for parent General advice for principals Basis in ETR Act for reasonable excuse Follow up
Illness or accident Yes No Yes N/A 2.1.3(a)(i) No
Medical/dental appointment Yes Yes Yes Approve if an out of hours appointment is not possible or not appropriate 2.1.3(fa) No, unless absences become excessive

Attending or observing a religious event or obligation

Yes No Yes N/A 2.1.3(f) No
Suspended No Yes Yes N/A 2.1.3(d)

Yes (suspension guidelines)

Bereavement such as a death of a family member, attendance at a funeral and/or related mourning activities (sorry business)

Yes Yes

Requires principal to approve

Approve 2.1.3(fa)

Offer and provide support as required

Truancy No Yes Yes N/A 2.1.3(e)

Meetings, Attendance Improvement Plan

School refusal Yes Yes

Requires principal to approve

Approve if parents and school are working on plan to address cause


Yes - meetings to identify and address the cause

Family holiday Yes Yes Requires principal to approve

Approve if parents notify in advance.School policy should be developed for long or frequent/
repeated holidays


Student Absence Learning Plans developed in conjunction with classroom teachers

Required to comply with another law

Yes No Yes N/A 2.1.3(a)(ii)

No, unless absences become excessive. Offer and provide support as required

Cultural observance

Yes Yes Requires principal to approve Approve if parent notifies in advance 2.1.3(fa) No

Leisure or social activities

Yes Yes Requires principaI to approve

Case-by-case basis

2.1.3(fa) No

Unforeseen event

Yes Yes Yes Approve if satisfied event was unforeseen and prevented attendance 2.1.3(a)(i) No
Unavoidable cause Yes Yes Yes Approve if satisfied cause was unavoidable and prevented attendance 2.1.3(a)(i) No
Other – special event or participation in elite sporting event/training Yes Yes Requires principal to approve

Case-by-case basis

2.1.3(fa) No
Exemption No No Yes 2 .1.3 (g)

Ensure any conditions of exemption are met. Monitor attendance at other provider

Employment in the entertainment industry Yes Yes (through approving exemption) Yes N/A 2.1.3(g) Yes, to ensure conditions of exemption are complied with

Following up absences

Most absences will be excused and require no further follow up.

Where absences are of concern due to their nature or frequency, the school will involve the parents and the student as appropriate in developing strategies to improve attendance.

Parents should be informed that if a student has repeated absences without a reasonable excuse or explanation, the parent may be issued with a School Attendance Notice from a School Attendance Officer.


  • CASES21 provides letters to be used for notifying parents of absences and seeking explanations.
  • Schools should keep records of all attempts to contact parents or students and any information obtained.

No reasonable excuse provided

For all absences where the principal has determined that a parent has not provided a reasonable excuse, the school must notify the parent in writing that the absences have been recorded as such. Principals should take care to ensure that, wherever possible, this letter or email is addressed to the parent who has been deemed responsible for the child's absence on the relevant day or days.

If the principal decides that no reasonable excuse has been provided for an absence, the absence must be recorded as such and the parent must be informed that this means:

  • they may not have met their obligations under the Education and Training Reform Act 2006 (Vic)
  • an accumulation of these absences could lead to a School Attendance Notice from a School Attendance Officer
  • failure to comply with the School Attendance Notice may result in the issue of an Infringement Notice.

Unexplained absences

If a parent does not contact the school to provide an explanation on the day of the student absence, the school must attempt to contact the parent (for example by telephone) of the student as soon as practicable on the same day. If an explanation is received, the accurate cause of the absence must be recorded.

Schools must advise parents promptly of unexplained absences. Schools should take care to notify the parent who is responsible for ensuring the child's attendance on that particular day. If, upon being notified of their child's absence or contacted to seek an explanation, a parent reports that the child was not living with them on that day, the school should- ensure they notify another parent who was responsible for ensuring the child attended school on the relevant day(s).

If contact cannot be made with the parent, the school should attempt to make contact with any emergency contact/s nominated on the student's file held by the school.

If, following contact, the student’s safety has been established, but no explanation has been provided within 10 school days, the absence should be recorded as an unexplained absence and also be noted in the student's file.

If whereabouts of a student is unknown

If, from multiple attempts to contact with a parent, it becomes apparent that a student will not be returning to the school, the principal may make a referral to a School Attendance Officer if:

  • no alternative education destination can be found for the student
  • the student has been absent for 10 consecutive school days.

In the referral form, schools should provide information of all attempts to contact parents, students and emergency contact people and any information obtained. They must also ensure they keep written records of these attempts.

The School Attendance Officer will then:

  • enact procedures to locate the student
  • send a School Attendance Notice if the student cannot be located at another registered school or training provider.

Until notification from the School Attendance Officer is received, a school should continue to record the absences for that student as unexplained and advise the School Attendance Officer if they receive any information about the whereabouts of the student.

When a resolution is reached (e.g. student located, a response to a School Attendance Notice gives additional information, or no response is received to a School Attendance Notice), the School Attendance Officer will notify the school to do one or more of the following:

  • complete a transfer or exit process for the student, and provide an exit destination record
  • amend the attendance record for the time the student has not been attending, so the absences do not count towards the school's absences, from a date specified by the School Attendance Officer
  • maintain the student's enrolment at the school and amend the attendance records for the time the student was not attending to reflect the actual reason for the absence
  • implement a Return to School Plan for the student.


The principal or nominee must:

  • keep records of all contact , or attempts to make contact, with the student's family, for a minimum period of one year
  • maintain documentation of all attempted and implemented intervention strategies aimed at restoring a student's attendance
  • ensure attendance records (electronic and hardcopy) are managed in accordance with standards set by the Public Record Office VictoriaExternal Link and guidelines issued by the Department (government schools), or relevant Commonwealth privacy legislation (non-government schools).
Chapter 6 of the Attendance Guidelines outlining how schools manage student absence, including the process for excusing or not excusing a student absence

Reviewed 23 November 2021

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